4D Fetal Echocardiography by Giuseppe Rizzo, Domenico Arduini

By Giuseppe Rizzo, Domenico Arduini

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By Giuseppe Rizzo, Domenico Arduini

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J Am Coll Cardiol 1996; 27: 481-6. [23] Sharland GK, Chan KY, Allan LD. Coarctation of the aorta: difficulties in prenatal diagnosis. Br Heart J 1994; 71: 70–5. [24] Kirk JS, Comstock CH, Lee W, Smith RS, Riggs TW, Weinhouse E. Fetal cardiac asymmetry: a marker for congenital heart disease. Obstet Gynecol 1999; 93: 189–92 [25] Sharland GK, Allan LD. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 1992; 2: 175-81. [26] Tan J, Silverman NH, Hoffman JIE, Villegas M, Schmidt KG. Cardiac dimensions determined by cross-sectional echocardiographyechocardiography in the normal human fetus from 18 weeks to term.

Obstet Gynecol 1995, 85: 97-102. [11] Smith RS, Comstock CH, Kirk JS, Lee W. Ultrasonographic left cardiac axis deviation: a marker for fetal anomalies. Obstet Gynecol 1995; 85: 187-91. [12] Lev M, Liberthson RR, Golden JG, Eckner FA, Arcilla RA. The pathologic anarthomy of mesocardia. Am J Cardiol 1971; 28 : 428-35. [13] Macartney FJ, Zuberbuhler JR, Anderson RH. Morphological considerations pertaining to recognition of atrial isomerism. Consequences for sequential chamber localisation. Br Heart J 1980; 44: 657.

Figure 6: Real time 3D fetal echocardiogram showing cardiac structures following cropping in two orthogonal planes and rotating the image data set. Moreover, it enables visualization of surface or “en face” views of intracardiac structures. Such anatomical views and details could be of great value for prenatal diagnosis and prognostication. TWO DIMENSIONAL VIEWS OF THREE DIMENSIONAL IMAGE DATA: MULTIPLANAR AND TOMOGRAPHIC VIEWS Multiplanar viewing using orthogonal and inclined planes can also performed revealing display of 2D cardiac images in three separate planes simultaneously (Fig.

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