# A comprehensive text book of applied chemistry by Chander, Jagdish; Kumar, Anil

By Chander, Jagdish; Kumar, Anil

By Chander, Jagdish; Kumar, Anil

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20. 25. 30. 35. 40. 45. 50. 55. 60. 65. 70. 75. 80. 85. d c c b b c a d b b b a d a c c c /45/ Chapter 2 FUELS INTRODUCTION Anything that burns gives off heat. Wood, coal, paper and LPG are combustible substances which produce heat on burning. However, all combustible substances cannot be called fuels. Hence a fuel is a combustible substance that can be used to produce heat at a reasonable cost. Fuels contain potential energy that is locked within the chemical bonds of their constituent molecules, when they are burnt, a large part of this energy is released as heat.

Age of oxygen = 100 - %age of (C+H+N+5+Ash) Importance - Oxygen is present in combined from with hydrogen in coal hence hydrogen available for combustion is lesser than the actual one. High oxygen content coals have high inhercut moisture and low calorific value. 7%. Hence a good quality coal should have low %age of oxygen. Solved Numerical Examples Example 1. 5gm of coal was weighted into a silica crucible. 4015gm. The crucible was then covered with a vented lid and strongly heated for exactly seven minutes at 950± 20°C.

Uses - It is mainly used in foundry works, hardy-load bearing, parts of high pressure steam plants, water fittings etc. Aluminium bronze - The approximate composition is Cu == 90-93% Al = 10-7% Properties - 1. It has magnificent golden yellow colour. 2. It possesses good abrasion - resistance. 3. It is quite strong, readily fusible, resistant to corrosion. Uses - It is mainly used for bushes and bearing, utensils, coins, photo frames etc. 5 % Properties - 1. It is light, tough and highly ductile.