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Resolutions ranged from 16-bits with the early audio DACs to 18 and 20 bits with later versions. For example, the AD1865 dual 18-bit stereo DAC was introduced in 1991 and was capable of 16-times oversampling. 5 DATA CONVERTERS OF THE 1990S By the mid-1990s, the Σ-∆ architecture began to replace the parallel DACs in audio applications. Sigma-delta offered much higher oversampling ratios, thereby relaxing output filter requirements, as well as provided higher dynamic range with lower distortion. Some early offerings were the AD1857, AD1858, and AD1859 introduced in 1996.
In the 1990s, CMOS became the process-of-choice for general-purpose data converters, with BiCMOS reserved for the high-end devices. In a few cases, high-speed complementary bipolar processes were utilized for ultra high performance data converters. 55 ANALOG-DIGITAL CONVERSION topology of choice for ADCs and DACs used in voiceband and audio applications, as well as in higher resolution, low frequency measurement converters. A major process technology shift occurred in the 1990s, when parasitics ultimately became the performance-limiting factor for high-speed chip-and-wire hybrid data converters.
Note on Anti-Ballistic Missile (ABM) system history: Although most of the information regarding the various ABM systems was classified at the time, today the information is in the public domain. org is a site maintained by the Union of Concerned Scientists, 2 Brattle Square, Cambridge, MA 02238. There is a section on the site under the security section titled "From Nike-Zeus to Safeguard: US Defenses Against ICBMs, 1958-1976. au/missiles is a site maintained by an individual with an excellent collection of references about the ABM programs.