By Remco J. Wiegerink
This publication has its roots in an idea first formulated by way of Barrie Gilbert in 1975. He confirmed how bipolar analog circuits can become aware of nonlinear and computational services. This prolonged the analog artwork from linear to nonlinear functions, consequently the identify trans linear circuits. not just did this new precept let marvellous sign processing services to be correctly applied, but additionally the circuits have been basic and sensible. The perennial difficulties of analog Ie layout, specifically temperature sensitivity, processing unfold, gadget nonlinearity and paracitic capacitance have been solved to a wide quantity. utilizing the trans linear precept in circuit layout calls for altering your perspective in methods. First, the grossly nonlinear attribute of transistors is seen as an asset instead of as a damaging estate. moment, not are the indications represented by way of voltages, yet via currents. in reality, the attendant voltage adjustments are distorted yet, as they're very small, they're in simple terms of secondary curiosity. realizing and examining a given trans linear circuit in all fairness easy. yet what in regards to the communicate state of affairs: feel you are given a few nonlinear or computational functionality to enforce? how to define an appropriate translinear circuit awareness? the overall challenge of analog circuit synthesis is a tough one and is receiving a lot recognition these days. a few years in the past, I had the chance to enquire tools for designing bipolar trans linear circuits. It became out that translinear networks have a few targeted topological houses. utilizing those houses it used to be attainable to set up heuristic synthesis procedures.
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Additional info for Analysis and Synthesis of MOS Translinear Circuits
2-8 An MOS transistor with series resistance Rs and parallel capacitance Cgs . Second-order effects 24 Substituting (2-36) into (2-38) gives: (2-39) Both k (eqn. (2-3» and Cgs are dependent on the transistor dimensions. ~ -"-12 . ~ WL . 'J ~- . - 1 . -dId) s 3 I! -ff,; dt (2-41) This equation is valid if: (2-42) cw ccw (2-43) The first condition (2-42) can be approximated by: • restricting the drain currents to small values, or by • using devices with small series resistance, or by • scaling the series resistance inversely proportional to the drain currents.
The channel-length modulation parameter. This parameter A. is inversely proportional to the channel length L. The proportionality factor is mainly determined by processing. If we incorporate channel length modulation in the derivation of the MTL principle eqn. (2-6) becomes: (2-30) Second-order effects 22 It follows that the influence of channel length modulation can be eliminated by making the drain-source voltages of all transistors in the MTL loop equal. E. Component Mismatches MOS transistor mismatches  consist of: • mismatches in threshold voltages, and • mismatches in the w/L ratio's A mismatch in the threshold voltages causes that these voltages can not be dropped from eqn.
3-14 and the circuit of fig. 3-17 were compared by means of SPICE simulations. Sine-wave signals were applied to the inputs Ix and ly with a 90° phase shift. The resulting output current should be constant because sin2(x)+cos 2(x)=1. Fig. 3-18 shows the simulation results for input current amplitudes of 5 IlA and 50 1lA. P-channel devices were used instead of the n-channel devices shown in the figures, because in our process  only p-channel transistors have separate wells. All transistors were 100 Ilm wide and 10 Ilm long.