By C. E. Crouthamel, F. Adams, R. Dams, R. Belcher and H. Freiser (Auth.)
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Considerable advance with these latter detectors has revolutionized the field during the past 10 years, and more progress can be expected in the near future. One result of this rapid advance is that few compilation works are actually available and that a number of important facts are widely scattered in the literature. While most future users of scintillation and semiconductor detectors will not make their own, it is felt that an insight into the problems of designing and making the detectors will help in the selection and specification of purchased units.
Another major consideration in the choice of these materials is the question of radio active contamination. Since the metal is quite close to the crystal, it is important that there is not a large amount of contamination. In applications where extreme emphasis has been placed on obtaining low background, aluminum is not preferred because almost all alumi num contains small amounts of uranium and radium, which are "scavenged" from the cryolite used in the electrolysis of the ore. Electrolytic copper and some stainless steel have been found to be quite free of contamination, but it is always advisable to check pieces which are to be used in scintillation counter housings.
Phenylene-bis-(5-phenyloxazole)] in toluene or polystyrene. From these organic scintiUators, the highest scintillation efficiency can be achieved with anthracene. Among the inorganic scintiUators the following three main types can be distinguished: impurity activated, self-activated, and pure crystals. Most of the luminescent materials are only available as small crystals or crystalline powders. Thus they are not efficient for the detection of the highly penetrating electromagnetic radiation. Therefore the production of large single crystals, which are highly transparent, is very important.