By Rudolf Kingslake
Utilized Optics and Optical Engineering, quantity five: Optical tools, half 2 (v. five)
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Extra resources for Optical Instruments, Part 2
Thus, if every other groove is misplaced, ghosts are seen in the half-order positions. The number of grooves per period determines the fractional-order position of Lyman ghosts. It is usually possible to find the origin of the error in the ruling engine once its periodicity is determined. 20 21 G . SATELLITES Satellites are misplaced spectrum lines usually occurring very close to the parent line. Individual gratings vary greatly in the number and intensity of satellites which they produce. They may be so numerous as to be called " grass," or they may be absent, as in a " clean " grating.
Here the long face is the one blazed. Replication removes the overhanging burr which is seen to intercept a portion of the incoming light to the original. The result is an increase of efficiency often of the order of 100%. 3 5 3 6 A. R. H. Cole, Opt. Soc. Am. 44, 741-743 (1954). J. V. White and W. A. S. Patent 2,464,738 (1949). 34 DAVID RICHARDSON 2. Transmission Gratings Transmission gratings are made in the same way, except that the glass blank is optically flat on its back surface and the aluminum is chemically removed from the ruled surface after separation.
GRATINGS GENERATED W I T H O U T A R U L I N G E N G I N E Gratings occur naturally in some minerals. Debye and Sears observed the grating behavior of a homogeneous medium traversed by compression waves. The molecular structure of crystals provides the threedimensional grating used for electron diffraction and short-wavelength X-ray diffraction. Longer-wavelength (soft) X rays are often diffracted by pseudocrystals formed as a multilayer structure, but grazing-incidence gratings are being used with increasing frequency for this spectral region.