By Mason T.J., Lorimer J.P.
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Additional resources for Applied Sonochemistry. Uses of Power Ultrasoud in Chemistry and Processing
At A the particles are more separated than normal and there is rarefaction i. e. decreased pressure. The displacement and pressure are out of phase. Perhaps the most easily visualised demonstration of the out of phase nature of displacement and pressure is obtained by attaching a supported weight on a spring (Fig. 7a). On removing the support the spring will immediately elongate due to the force (equivalent to pressure) of the weight acting on it. At maximum extension the overall force (or pressure ) acting on the spring is zero (Fig.
5. J. W. Barnaby, Torpedo boat destroyers, Proc. Inst. Civil. Engineers, 1895, 122, 51. 6. Lord Rayleigh, On the pressure developed in a liquid during the collapse of a spherical cavity, Phil. , 1917, 34, 94 ± 8. 7. J. D. Cordemans, Ultrasonic intensification of chemical processing and related operations ± a review, Trans. I. Chem. , 1996, 74, 511 ± 516. 8. J. Mason, A sound investment, Chemistry and Industry, 1998, 878 ± 882. 9. A. J. L. S. ), Industrial applications of sonochemistry and power ultrasonics, Sonochemistry and Sonoluminescence, NATO ASI Series, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 1999, 377 ± 390, ISBN 0-7923-5549-0.
Conventional technology involves agitating and stirring with rotating devices and baffled pipes as the processors of fluids when mixing, reacting or dissolving small and submicron sized particles on an industrial scale. This can take many hours, days or even weeks until the desired properties are obtained. The basic problem with conventional rotational mixing techniques, when trying to disperse solid particles of 10 microns in diameter or smaller in a liquid is that the rate of mixing and mass transfer of these particles through the medium reaches a maximum.