By Aristotle, W.D. Ross (Editor)
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Extra info for Aristotle's Prior and Posterior Analytics: A Revised Text with Introduction and Commentary (Oxford University Press academic monograph reprints)
He would have done better to point to the obvious fact that the propositions 'All B is A and -No Cis B' have no tendency to show either that all or some or no C is A or that some C is not A. It is only syllogisms in the first figure that are directly validated by the dictum de omni et mulo. For the validation of syllogisms in the other two figures Aristotle relies on three other methods--conversion, reductio ad impossibile, and €,d1EQ"tS-ahout each of which something must be said. (1) All the moods of the second and third figures but four' are validated by means of the simple conversion of premisses in E or I, with or without change of the order of the premisses and a corresponding conversion of the conclusion.
I An. Pro i. 23. n. 23. INTRODUCTION stroyed; therefore any part of substance must be substance'; or again, 'If it is necessary that animal should exist if man does, and that substance should · exist if animal does, it is necessary that substance should exist if man does . .. We are deceived in such cases because something necessary results from what is assumed, since the syllogism also is necessary. 'l Here is a clear recognition of inference that is conclusive but not syllogistic, and we must regret that Aristotle did not pursue farther what he here so clearly recognizes.
5 30bt-S . THE MODAL SYLLOGISM 43 totle seems to get round the prima facie objection to the original syllogism, that it has a premiss 'weaker' than the conclusion it draws; for the reductio syllogism is not open to this objection. Yet Aristotle's doctrine is plainly wrong. e.