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Element Na Mg Al Bonding Metallic Structure Giant metallic 3000 2000 Si 1000 0 –250 The structure and bonding of the elements sodium to argon is shown in the table below. Si Covalent Giant atomic (giant molecular) C P 5 10 15 Ar atomic number H S Cl Covalent Simple molecules P4 S8 Cl2 Ar Single atoms Ar 45 T HE P ERIODIC TABLE (2) Main group chemistry A study of group 1 (lithium to caesium) and group 2 (beryllium to barium) illustrates the behaviour of metals and their compounds. Conversely, a study of group 7 (chlorine to iodine) illustrates the behaviour of a group of non-metals and their compounds.
It has a high charge density, it is very polarising. Such a cation will distort the electron cloud of the anion, pulling the electron density towards itself. + – + – This introduces covalent character into the ionic compound. Anions with a large radius and high negative charge are very polarisable. 31 S TRUCTURE AND B ONDING (6) In a purely covalent molecule, the bonding pair of electrons is evenly shared between the two nuclei. Example Molecules consisting of two identical atoms, such as H2 and Cl2 The electron cloud is equally distributed between the two nuclei.
2) 8 Use the VSEPR theory to work out the shapes of the following molecules or ions. (a) SF6 (2) (b) CO32– (2) (c) PH3 (2) (d) PF4+ (2) The answers are on page 111. 37 R EDOX R EACTIONS (1) Oxidation and reduction Oxidation has been defined as: ● gain of oxygen 2CuO(s) Example 2Cu(s) + O2(g) copper has been oxidised ● loss of hydrogen MnCl2(aq) + 2H2O(l) + Cl2(g) Example MnO2(s) + 4HCl(l) hydrochloric acid has been oxidised Reduction has been defined as: ● loss of oxygen 2Fe(l) + 3CO2(g) Example Fe2O3(s) + 3CO(g) iron (III) oxide has been reduced ● gain of hydrogen Example C2H4(g) + H2(g) ethene has been reduced C2H6(g) Because many reactions involving oxidation and reduction do not involve loss or gain of hydrogen and/or oxygen, it is more useful to define oxidation and reduction in terms of electrons.