By C. Giraudon (auth.), G. Tacconi (eds.)
This paper describes the result of present examine at DREA during which recommendations of optimal array processing are being utilized to lively sonar. we're featuring those effects on the complicated research Institute on the way to illustrate a few genuine functions for such processing and to indicate a few of the useful issues which come up in genuine platforms. particularly, the paper issues the issues which come up whilst the person sensor components have a classy directivity trend themselves. this can be a universal phenomenon in energetic structures the place the receiving sensors are complicated resonant buildings and are housed in a dome or towed physique offering a number of baffling and diffraction results. such a lot remedies of array processing think of perfect parts that have good behaved directivity houses and are obvious to the sphere. the result of this paper express that the place those houses aren't met, cautious in situ array measurements are required, or even with such measurements useful array profits is probably not nearly as good as predictions according to excellent sensors.
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Extra resources for Aspects of Signal Processing With Emphasis on Underwater Acoustics, Part 2: Proceedings of the NATO Advanced Study Institute held at Portovenere, La Spezia, Italy 30 August–11 September 1976
If the linear array includes n + 1 sensors, and if the useful spectrum includes m elementary pieces, mn distinct samples of the Fourier transform can be evaluated, and even, if the mutual distances of the elements are arbitrary : mn (n - 1) m [( n - 1) + (n - 2) + . . + 2 + 1J = 2 dis t i nc t samples. e. Is (8)1~ does not depend on 00 in the useful band; if it is not flat, the measurements result in m distinct Fourier transforms, each of them being defined by n (n - 1) 2 samples. It can be seen very easily that the spatial frequency spectrum is not homogeneously sampled.
This is a common phenomenon in active systems where the receiving sensors are complex resonant structures and are housed in a dome or towed body presenting various baffling and diffraction effects. Most treatments of array processing consider ideal elements which have well behaved directivity properties and are transparent to the field. The results of this paper show that where these properties are not met, careful in situ array measurements are required, and even with such measurements practical array gains may not be as good as predictions based on ideal sensors.
The ionosphere -- which al lows a variety of multipath structures, and because the HF noise and interference environment typically contains many more sources than there are degrees of freedom in the array processor, the overall evnironment shares many similarities with that found in sonar. As a result, the conclusions reached from this study may well reflect comparable improvements available in sonar systems with the use of a simple adaptive beamformer. REFERENCES 1. 2. 3. J. Griffiths, "Time-domain adaptive beamforming of HF backscatter radar signals," IEEE Trans.