By Michael Mendillo, Andrew Nagy, J. H. Waite Jr.
Published via the yankee Geophysical Union as a part of the Geophysical Monograph Series.
Atmospheres are the most important parts of our universe. they're the one observable areas of stars and large planets, either inside of and past our sun procedure. a few terrestrial-size our bodies (Venus, Earth, Mars, Titan and Triton) have everlasting atmospheres whereas others (e.g., Mercury, Moon, Io, and Europa) have tenuous gaseous envelopes that vary day-by-day. Comets are tiny our bodies via planetary yardsticks, yet their atmospheres will be the biggest obvious gadgets within the evening sky. Atmospheric technology strives to appreciate how this type of diversified set of atmospheres shape, evolve, and disappear.
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Such models currently exist for t h e E a r t h , Mars, Venus, Jupiter and T i t a n , as described in Chapters I V . 4. Selected results for the upper atmospheric dynamics from these models, characterized by winds and ion drifts, will be described in this section. The density of the neutral thermosphere is modified by neutral winds. These winds are generated by heatinduced pressure gradients, and are influenced by Coriolis forces (due to planetary rotation) and even more strongly by frictional forces (due to air viscosity and collisions between ions and neutral particles).
Spencer, J. R, K. L. Jessup, M. A. McGrath, G. E. Ballester, and R. V. Yelle, Discovery of Gaseous S2 in Io's Pele Plume, Science, 288, 1208-1210, 2000. Strobel, D. F. and B. C. Wolven, The Atmosphere of Io: Abundances and Sources of Sulfur Dioxide and Atomic Hydrogen, Astrophys. , 277, 271-287, 2001. Summers, M. , D. F. Strobel, Y. L. Yung, J. T. Trauger, and F. Mills, The Structure of Io's Atomic Corona and Implications for Atmospheric Escape, Astrophys. , 343, 468-480, 1989. Yelle, R. , J. I.
L ENERGETICS AND THERMAL STRUCTURE General Principles T h e thermosphere is the uppermost region of the at mosphere. Because of heating by solar E U V and F U V radiation, it is usually, b u t not always, a region of high t e m p e r a t u r e , T h e base of the thermosphere is at the mesopause, which can be defined as the t e m p e r a t u r e minimum created by the tendencies for a negative tem p e r a t u r e gradient in the mesosphere, due to radiative cooling, and a positive t e m p e r a t u r e gradient in the ther mosphere, due t o thermal conduction.