Bioclimatology and Biogeography of Africa by Henry N. Houérou

By Henry N. Houérou

Masking a space of over a hundred thirty million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent incorporates a excellent geographic variety. hence, it's characterized via tremendous variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to quite a lot of usual plants and natural world, in addition to human inhabitants density, vegetation and cattle. during this publication, Henry Le Hou?rou provides his bioclimatic and biogeographic type of Africa. The large facts give you the foundation for comparisons among a variety of African areas, and with areas on different continents reminiscent of Latin the United States or the Indian subcontinent. the implications represent a rational foundation for nationwide, nearby and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural learn facing facets similar to plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of functions also are tested.

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By Henry N. Houérou

Masking a space of over a hundred thirty million km2 spanning the Mediterranean, equator and tropics, the African continent incorporates a excellent geographic variety. hence, it's characterized via tremendous variable climatic, edaphic and ecological stipulations, linked to quite a lot of usual plants and natural world, in addition to human inhabitants density, vegetation and cattle. during this publication, Henry Le Hou?rou provides his bioclimatic and biogeographic type of Africa. The large facts give you the foundation for comparisons among a variety of African areas, and with areas on different continents reminiscent of Latin the United States or the Indian subcontinent. the implications represent a rational foundation for nationwide, nearby and sub-regional rural improvement making plans, and for agricultural learn facing facets similar to plant and animal introductions, the extrapolation or interpolation of experimental or developmental findings, and ecosystems dynamics. attainable difficulties of functions also are tested.

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3 °C ETo = 1,287 mm d Shahat (=Cyrene) (Libya) Sub-humid Mediterranean agro-bioclimate with temperate winters Lat. 32°49′N P = 539 mm 2t = 382 mm Long. 35 ETo = 419 mm Elev. 7 45 Other Geographic Factors Affecting Rainfall: the Role of Oceanic Currents Apart from elevation and latitude, other geographical factors may strongly influence rainfall, such as the orientation of coastlines with respect to rain-bearing winds. The case is particularly clear on the northern shores of the Gulf of Guinea. Annual rainfall reaches 2,000–4,000 mm in areas where the shoreline is perpendicular to the trajectory direction of the SW monsoon, such as in Guinea, Sierra Leone, Liberia, the Ivory Coast and Nigeria.

5 °C ETo = 1,386 mm Rainy season = 210 days P/ETo = 52% f Oxbow (Lesotho) Hyper-humid subtropical montane agro-bioclimate, with very cold winters Lat. 28°43′S P = 1,281 mm 2t = 175 mm Rainy season = 365 days Long. 35 ETo = 266 mm P/ETo = 169% Elev. 9 °C ETo = 759 mm g Bloemfontein (South Africa) Semi-arid subtropical highland agro-bioc1imate with cold winters Lat. 29°07′S P = 552 mm 2t = 384 mm Long. 35 ETo = 481 mm Elev. 2 °C ETo = 1,374 mm h Cape Town (South Africa) Semi-arid agro-bioclimate with mild/warm winters Lat.

1988) achieved by using the Gamma distribution law (Hargreaves 1975a, b onwards; Mosiño and Garcia 1981; Le Houérou 1985a, b). 5 Rainfall Gradients Mean annual rainfall is subject to altitudinal and latitudinal gradients, which in turn are strongly affected by local situations. Altitudinal lapse rate: as a general rule, one may expect a positive altitudinal gradient of 10 ± 5% for each increase of 100 m in elevation; in other words, rainfall doubles for an increase of elevation from 500 to 1,500 m up to a maximum, which again varies with local conditions, from 2,500 to 3,500 m and then decreases on higher mountains, in the Afro-alpine and Mediterranean-alpine zones (Le Houérou 1959a, 1969, 1984a, 1989a, 1995a, 2005a, b).

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