By Andre Jungmittag, Guido Reger, Thomas Reiss
The internationalization of analysis and expertise is one key portion of the globalization of exchange and enterprise, with most likely significant affects on styles of monetary improvement and public guidelines all over the world. even if yes elements of this internationalization pattern are good documented, and a few results could be quantified, the general techniques are tremendous advanced and the results are hugely doubtful. The life of the phenomenon is mostly permitted, yet its value and the tendencies are presently the subject of a full of life debate. This learn on "New methods in Drug improvement in prescribed drugs" is a part of a 3 yr venture which goals at investigating how new suggestions of business wisdom production are carried out within the varied environ ments of the innovation structures of the us and Germany. the focus of the final venture is a sequence of case reviews of innovation perform in several nationwide and sectoral contexts. the next sectors and technological fields are investigated: prescription drugs and new methods in drug improvement by means of the Fraunhofer Institute for structures and Innovation study (ISI), complex fabrics via the collage Hohenheim, Insti tute of foreign administration and Innovation (Alexander Gerybadze), monetary companies and residential banking via the Massachusetts Institute of Tech nology (MIT), middle for commercial functionality (Richard Lester) and the Sloan college of administration (Edward Roberts). Financially the undertaking used to be supported by way of the German-American educational Council, the German Federal Minstry of schooling, technological know-how examine and know-how and the Fraunhofer Society.
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Additional resources for Changing Innovation in the Pharmaceutical Industry: Globalization and New Ways of Drug Development
In the case of Germany, however, it must be said that national regulations in this area are being increasingly replaced by regulations applicable for the whole of the European Union. The significant catalyst for this development was, besides the general European integration process, also the rapid technological development in the field of biotechnology, which again had repercussions on the entire pharmaceutical industry. According to the interdisciplinarity of the pharmaceutical industry, the policies for R&D, patenting and regulation are strongly connected with the present stage of development in the new field biotechnology which raises issues where there is a great deal of uncertainty.
2 Systems of Innovation in the German and US Pharmaceutical Sector 25 real question here. Firstly, as shown above, the public share of funding the healthcare system is much smaller in the US anyway and secondly, the patients' own contributions for medical services are very much higher. For example, with Medicare (the health insurance for the over 65s) , the own contribution for medicine amounts to 100 %. Patients' own contribution towards medicine is much lower in Germany. The patients' contribution for medicine not on the fixed amount list are charged according to the package size and "fixed amount medicines" are reimbursed up to the limit of the fixed amount.
However, Germany, France and Great Britain are still large producers of pharmaceuticals. 17. There is a clear separation between small export countries with above average annual growth rates and large export countries with below average annual growth rates. Japan belongs also to the first group with fast growing exports. High growth rates of the smaller export countries indicate that they are catching up. However, due to different country sizes, this can be only a relative catching up. The group of the large export countries remains stable over time.