By A. D. Danilov (auth.)
I was once more than pleased to profit that Plenum Press has determined to put up an English version of Chemistry of the Ionosphere. even supposing the e-book used to be principally meant for the Soviet reader as a way to fill a few gaps in Russian-language reports on aeronomic difficulties, i'm hoping that it can be invaluable to international experts engaged in iono spheric learn in addition. evidently, in the course of the time which has elapsed because the education of the Russian version new reviews were released on the planet literature at the difficulties handled during this publication. crucial of those are famous within the ap pendix to this version, yet a few difficulties (for instance, with appreciate to the physics of detrimental ions within the decrease ionosphere) require a thorough reexamination, which can't be performed in a short appendix. i'll be happy if ebook of the publication in English will as sist in removal the various presently present ambiguities in easy difficulties of higher surroundings chemistry. A. D. Danilov Preface to the Russian version 1 within the final decade outstanding successes were completed within the research of the earth's higher surroundings via use of rockets and synthetic satellites. those investigations have made it transparent that the higher surroundings (and relatively the ionospheric area at altitudes 100-1000 km) is a significantly extra complicated formation than should be visualized ahead of the arrival of lively reviews with house vehicles.
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B. Altitude Range 100-200 km. The ion composition in this atmospheric region now has been investigated more thoroughly than the composition in other regions. 7. This table shows that the experiments were RESULTS OF ROCKET INVESTIGATIONS 20 [M+]/[O+j 5 It ,-. 5 1-10- 1 9 1 1 ro;)/[0+1 - ~l [ NO +J/(O +j [N;]I[O+j '"\ 1-10. J 7 0 0 t.. \ 1\ \ " ~\ \ \\ \ ...... 1 \ ~ " ~i ~ tA \ i \ ..... t-" \ N' \ \ 4 \ , I. \ \\ J 2 "I. 5 • [N+l/fO') 1. 4 J f-2 Third artificial earth satellite May, 1958, Daytime Rocket Aug, 1958 Daytime 3 [CHAP.
4. Intensity of Solar UV Radiation The most complex investigations of short-wave solar radiation intensity were made by rockets of American researchers. The results of these investigations have been described in detail in a whole series of studies (Tousey [61, Friedman [561, Hinteregger , Hinteregger et al. , and others). 9 give data on the energy of solar UV and X-radiation beyond the limits of the atmosphere, taken from a review by Hinteregger [51. 8 gives the energy flux'(ergs/cm2 • sec) within intervals with A = 50 A for the region A = 2625-1325 A according to the measurements made by Detwiler et al.
In studies by Ratcliffe et al. 49) In a study by Van Zandt et al. 50) which for the F2 region maximum gives a recombination coefficient almost an order of magnitude greater than the preceding expression. In a study by Rishbeth and Setty , based on [e] measurements in the F2 region at sunrise, it was found that regardless of the level of solar activity f3 l>::; 3 . 8 . 10-4 sec- i in winter. This study was based solely on morning f3 values. However, in a detailed investigation made by Polyakov  it was established that in the morning, some time after sunrise, the f3 value decreases sharply, particularly in winter.