China's Diplomacy by Zhang Qingmin

By Zhang Qingmin

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By Zhang Qingmin

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In December 1943, the governments of China, the US, and Great Britain issued the Cairo Declaration, which stipulated that Japan return all the territories that it had seized or occupied, including Northeast China, Taiwan, and Penghu to China. The Potsdam Proclamation signed by China, the US, and Great Britain on July 26, 1945, which was subsequently adhered to by the Soviet Union, reiterated that the terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out. In August of the same year, Japan surrendered.

By 1977, China had joined 21 international organizations including the UN, and had signed off on 45 international treaties, agreements, and conventions. The year of 1978 was a turning point in Chinese history. China began to practice an opening-up policy, which was carried out gradually from the coastal areas to the interior of China. While working hard to “invite foreign organizations and investors in,” China took an active step to “go out” by actively participating in the activities of the UN, starting the process of integration into the international system.

At the same time, the Chinese troops took over Hong Kong’s defense duty, starting the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong. The problem of Macau has similarities with the Hong Kong situation. The Portuguese landed in Macau to engage in trade in 1535 and started to live there in 1557. Portugal forced the Qing government to sign the SinoPortuguese Protocol of Lisbon and Sino-Portuguese Treaty of Beijing in March and December of 1887, respectively. From then on the Portuguese had occupied and lived in Macau and treated it as a Portuguese territory.

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