Taking a micro-historical method of the research of ethnic identities within the Philippines, this publication bargains a desirable portrait of the way chinese language service provider households in Manila negotiated the meanings of chinese language, chinese language mestizo, Catholic, and Filipino
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Extra resources for Chinese and Chinese Mestizos of Manila (Chinese Overseas)
Zheng 2001 and the QZWSZLXJ (1988, Vol. 4, 36) list only five: Huian, Nan’an, Tong’an, Jinjiang, and Anxi. Ng gives the same list for the year 1735, with no mention of Dehua and Yongchun as an “autonomous department” (1983, ix). In Zheng 2001, the Quanzhou prefectural seat and the Maxiang subprefecture were also listed as being under the jurisdiction of the Quanzhou prefecture. The counties under the Zhangzhou prefecture included the following counties or xian (xian): Longxi, Nanjing, Zhaoan, Dongshan, Pinghe, Changtai, Haideng, Zhangpu, Yunxiao, Huaan, Longyan, Zhangping, Ningyang and thirteen other counties (Lin 1988, 35).
With its extensive river systems and wide coastal areas, Fujian developed a shipbuilding industry that made it possible for its people to engage in extensive maritime trade, as described earlier in this chapter. The boats or junks they built easily navigated the many “narrow and fast flowing streams in these river systems” as well as the wide-open seas in the Nanyang (Rawski 1972, 59–60). 22 The two main provinces that the southwest part of Fujian traded with in the Ming period were Jiangxi and Zhejiang (Rawski 1972, 60).
This measure of migration control fell by the wayside when beleaguered Qing officials became fully occupied with defending the dynasty from attacks by foreigners armed with cannons and warships and bands of millenarian rebels” (Hsu 2000, 24). 17 China also signed the Burlingame Treaty with the United States in 1868 that legalized the emigration of Chinese laborers. Later on, the Qing government realized that overseas immigration could help ease social unrest and that the Chinese living “overseas” could be tapped to help China, both politically and his fight with and defeat of the Dutch, and his anti-Qing rebellion.