By Neil H. E. Weste, David Money Harris
For either introductory and complex classes in VLSI layout, this authoritative, complete textbook is extremely obtainable to newbies, but deals remarkable breadth and intensity for more matured readers. The Fourth version of CMOS VLSI layout: A Circuits and platforms point of view offers wide and in-depth assurance of the total box of recent CMOS VLSI layout. The authors draw upon large and school room adventure to introduce today’s such a lot complex and powerful chip layout practices. They current generally up to date assurance of each key component of VLSI layout, and remove darkness from the newest layout demanding situations with sixty five nm technique examples. This ebook includes unsurpassed circuit-level insurance, in addition to a wealthy set of difficulties and labored examples that supply deep useful perception to readers in any respect degrees.
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Extra resources for CMOS VLSI Design: A Circuits and Systems Perspective (4th Edition)
Oxide is used for masking in the same way, and thus is not shown. 38(b)). Finally, aluminum is sputtered over the entire wafer, ﬁlling the contact cuts as well. Sputtering involves blasting aluminum into a vapor that evenly coats the wafer. 38(c)). This completes the simple fabrication process. Modern fabrication sequences are more elaborate because they must create complex doping proﬁles around the channel of the transistor and print features that are smaller than the wavelength of the light being used in lithography.
An nMOS transistor is built with a p-type body and has regions of n-type semiconductor adjacent to the gate called the source and drain. They are physically equivalent and for now we will regard them as interchangeable. The body is typically grounded. A pMOS transistor is just the opposite, consisting of p-type source and drain regions with an n-type body. In a CMOS technology with both ﬂavors of transistors, the substrate is either n-type or p-type. The other ﬂavor of transistor must be built in a special well in which dopant atoms have been added to form the body of the opposite type.
The choice of clock frequency depends on a complex interplay of microarchitecture and logic, circuit design, and physical design. Deeper pipelines allow higher frequencies but consume more power and lead to greater performance penalties when operations early in the pipeline are dependent on those late in the pipeline. Many functions have various logic and circuit designs trading speed for area, power, and design effort. Custom physical design allows more compact, faster circuits and lower manufacturing costs, but involves an enormous labor cost.