Computational Liquid Crystal Photonics : Fundamentals, by Obayya, Salah

By Obayya, Salah

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By Obayya, Salah

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6 Applications of PhCs The PhC can manipulate the photons and thus has received great interest in different applica‑ tions, such as sub‐wavelength imaging, scanning photon tunneling microscopy, phase shifters, logic gates, and optical routers. The design of PhC‐based applications is based on the bandgap or defect engineering. In this regard, the light can be controlled by introducing a defect in the periodic structure. If a line defect is introduced, the light can be transmitted through such a small waveguide along the defect only [27].

Source: Refs. 6 Schematics for 3D PhCs: (a) fcc lattice and (b) diamond lattice. Source: Ref. 7 Inverse woodpile crystal 3D PhCs. Source: Refs. 3 3D PhCs The 3D PhC has been suggested as a means of controlling electromagnetic waves in 3Ds. This crystal is a dielectric structure that is periodic along all three orthogonal axes. There are many common dielectric topologies that have been identified to uphold complete 3D gaps [2, 10–12]. However, in many applications, a full PBG is not required since, a priori restric‑ tions of the propagation direction and/or polarization may be given, or other mechanisms may be used to suppress propagation in certain directions.

4 Colloidal Self‐Assembly Over the past decades, the colloidal self‐assembly approach has been considered as a ­promising and practical approach for the fabrication of periodic and non‐periodic photonic nanostructures [25]. This method depends on the interactions between the colloidal particles, and the colloidal structures can be affected dramatically and modulated by applying an addi‑ tional external field. Compared to other approaches, colloidal self‐assembly is quick, efficient, and cheap. Recently, the colloidal self‐assembly approach has been applied for producing different nanoscale structures such as displays, optical devices, and photochemical and biological sensors.

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