By Lev Dorman
The current monograph in addition to the following one (Dorman, M2005) is as a result of greater than 50 years operating in cosmic ray (CR) learn. After commencement in December 1950 Moscow Lomonosov kingdom collage (Nuclear and trouble-free Particle Physics department, the crew of Theoretical Physics), my manager Professor D. I. Blokhintsev deliberate for me, as a winner of a purple degree, to proceed my schooling as an aspirant (a graduate scholar) to organize for Ph. D. in his very mystery item within the framework of what was once in these time referred to as the Atomic challenge. To my remorse the KGB withheld permission, and that i, including different Jewish scholars who had graduated Nuclear Divisions of Moscow and Leningrad Universities and Institutes, have been confronted with a true prospect of being with none paintings. It was once our success that at the moment there has been being introduced into being the hot Cosmic Ray venture (what at the moment used to be additionally very mystery, yet no longer as mystery because the Atomic Problem), and after a while we have been directed to paintings in this venture. It was once prepared and headed through Prof. S. N. Vernov (President of All-Union part of Cosmic Rays) and Prof. N. V. Pushkov (Director of IZMIRAN); Prof. E. L. Feinberg headed the theoretical a part of the Project.
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3. Let us classify and number the aspects from ground, atmosphere, magnetosphere, space (interplanetary space and the Heliosphere), Galaxy and Universe. 3. 1. The first aspect: CR underground and in the atmosphere The main subjects of this aspect are: CR interaction with the Earth's ground and atmosphere, generation of secondary particles (different types of 'strange' particles, pions, kaons, muons, neutrons, neutrinos, gamma rays, positrons and electrons) and formation of meson-nuclear and electron-photon cascades (reflected in CR integral multiplicities, coupling and response functions), air ionization and influence on ionosphere and radio wave propagation (the last is especially important in periods of great solar CR events), possible influence ofCR on chemical processes and formation of Chapter 1.
Main steps of CR discovery and research development Detailed description of the history of the discovery of CR and development of many aspects of CR research up to the middle of the 20th century was given in the monographs of Irena Dorman (M 1981, M 1989), and is reflected in a collection of original papers edited by Sekido and Elliot (M 1985). Here we will give a very short description of the main milestones of the discovery of CR and the development of CR research in many aspects. 1. Air conductivity and CR discovery (1900-1912) Geophysical investigations of air conductivity, which was started by Coulomb (1785) and continued up to the beginning of 20th century by Elster and Geitel (1900), Wilson (1900, 1901) and others, led to the discovery of some additional to the radioactive emanations some unknown source of air ionization.
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