By Ken Weaver and Donald Bruce
Dam origin Grouting: Revised and extended variation presents a state-of-the-practice assessment of all points of drilling and grouting-based applied sciences used for dam beginning therapy. Like its first version, this e-book offers readers with heritage details and advice to assist them comprehend and deal extra expectantly with concerns with regards to the layout, building, supervision, research, and overview of grouting courses. This new version of Dam starting place Grouting has been revised to mirror modern grouting perform and has been considerably enlarged to incorporate assurance of geologic concerns and to deal with remedial grouting concerns. as well as supplying huge info on grouting know-how, apparatus, and techniques, it additionally offers information of standards and contracts. Dam engineers, dam development engineers, grouting supervisors and inspectors, box group of workers of dam security reviewing organisations, and engineering scholars will all make the most of this publication.
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Turbulent flow: symmetrically lower Lugeon values at increasing pressures, usually indicative of fast flow in wider fractures (Figure 2-1b). • Dilation: higher Lugeon value at peak pressure, indicating local dilation of fractures by compression of adjacent softer materials or closure of adjacent parallel cracks (Figure 2-1c). • Washout: increasing Lugeon values during the course of the test, even after the pressure is reduced, indicates either flushing out of joint infilling or displacement (Figure 2-1d).
However, in general, the highest pressure used should be based on the inferred strength of the rock, to avoid hydrofracturing the formation or, in the case of weak, fissile rock, unnecessarily opening otherwise tight planes of separation. Littlejohn (1992) has suggested that pressures used in weak or soft rock may be 2, 4, 6, 4, and 2 bars and that, in strong rock, pressure steps of 10, 20, 40, 20, and 10 bars might be appropriate. A major objective of the upand-down tests should be to ascertain the typical range of pressures at which elastic widening of narrow fissure openings occurs.
1 Preconstruction Geologic Mapping Geologic mapping ordinarily is done as part of the design exploration program for a dam. The scale of the map of the dam site itself should be sufficiently large to show the locations and outlines of all outcrops in and near the anticipated foundation area. Because joints are perhaps the most universal contributor to a potential for leakage through a dam foundation (absent, of course, solution cavities and lava tubes), annotations of joint attitudes measured at each outcrop can be very important to the design of a grouting program.